Рембрандт. Штормовой пейзаж

Рембрандт. Штормовой пейзаж

В пейзажах очевидна склонность Рембрандта к динамике и движению, сочетавшаяся с восторгом перед очарованием и спокойной красотой родной страны.

Рембрандт часто предпринимал прогулки и путешествия вдоль каналов и рек. Знаменитая гравюра художника «Мост Сикса» была создана им всего за два часа. Порыв вдохновения захватил Рембрандта во время визита к другу Яну Сиксу в его загородном имении.

Пейзаж отличается экономным использованием художественных средств. На картине показана лишь общая масса деревьев, видна голая мачта одинокой лодки, но самое главное – любой зритель ощущает, как дуют те самые незатихающие ветра, которые Шекспир метко называл незримыми.

На автопортрете 1652 г. Рембрандт выглядит более старым, чем на предыдущем, выполненном 2 годами раньше. Его щеки стали дряблыми, глубокая морщина пролегла меж бровей, а глаза словно сделались больше. В автопортрете 1658 г. внимание зрителя сразу привлекают глаза, словно наполненные слезами. Рембрандт выглядит печальным, обиженным и подавленным.

Повод для такого настроения был более чем серьезным: Рембрандт был вынужден признать себя неплатежеспособным должником, а остатки его коллекции уникальных рисунков, эстампов, диковинных вещиц и костюмов были выставлены на аукцион.

Основной причиной разорения великого художника была его некомпетентность в ведении дел и полное отсутствие деловой хватки. Ему продолжали покровительствовать амстердамские меценаты, заказов не становилось меньше, он вел платные занятия для начинающих художников.

Более того, Рембрандт получил международную известность. Благодаря его прекрасным эстампам о нем узнали на Сицилии. Аристократа дона Антонио Руффо очень заинтересовало творчество талантливого художника. В 1652 г. коллекционер в письме из Мессины заказал Рембрандту портрет философа. Гонорар за доставленное Руффо полотно «Аристотель и Гомер» был весьма солидным.

При этом раскладе любой благоразумный человек мог бы процветать, по крайней мере, избежать финансового краха. Но Рембрандт не отличался умеренностью в тратах и не был скуп. Его биограф Бальдинуччи писал, что Рембрандт, желая взвинтить цену на свои работы, «до невообразимого уровня… скупал их по всей Европе, где только мог найти, за любую цену». Но подобная тактика художника была обречена на неудачу. Кроме того, Рембрандт часто покупал работы других живописцев с целью перепродажи, но и в этом он тоже не преуспел.

В 1658 г., за 2 недели до начала распродажи коллекции Рембрандта, по Амстердаму был пущен рекламный листок следующего содержания: «Попечители имущества несостоятельного должника Рембрандта ван Рейна… распродадут… нижеупомянутые бумажные произведения… вместе с изрядной частью рисунков и эскизов оного Рембрандта ван Рейна… Передайте дальше».



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