Рембрандт. Ночной дозор

Рембрандт. Рота капитана Баннинга Кока и лейтенанта Виллема ван Рейтенбурга (Ночной дозор), 1642

Над групповым портретом «Рота капитана Баннинга Кока и лейтенанта Виллема ван Рейтенбурга» («Ночной дозор») Рембрандт начал работать еще при жизни Саскии.

Это полотно вышло далеко за рамки жанра группового портрета. Очевидно, что 18 стрелков, изображенных на переднем плане полотна, не считая капитана и лейтенанта, не стали центром сюжетного действия картины. Вместо этого они стали участниками выразительной сцены, полной движения.

Рембрандт. Ночной дозор. Фрагмент

Увиденное настолько потрясло заказчиков, что они простили автору 16 дополнительных персонажей, введенных в картину для усиления ощущения движения и не заплативших ни гроша. Они не протестовали против неизвестно откуда взявшейся девочки с белой птицей и озорного мальчишки с мушкетом в руках.

Среди грубых солдат дети стали своеобразным эхом главного живописного аккорда из желтых и красных красок. Это гениальное полотно при жизни Рембрандта не вызывало никаких нареканий и критики в его адрес.

Неизвестно, по какой причине и на каком основании в более позднее время был сделан вывод о том, что эта картина стала колоссальным провалом великого художника и началом его полного разорения.

В середине 1640 х гг. в доме Рембрандта появилась служанка по имени Хендрикье Стоффельс. Она была дочерью солдата из Бредворта. Разглядывая многочисленные портреты Хендрикье, можно сказать наверняка, что она была простой, ласковой и добродушной женщиной, идеально подходившей на роль спутницы такого человека, каким был Рембрандт. Вначале Хендрикье из служанки превратилась в модель, но постепенно их отношения делались все более близкими, и вскоре она фактически стала женой художника. Она была рядом с мастером, пока билось ее сердце. Смерть настигла ее в 1663 г., когда Хендрикье исполнилось 37 лет. Она родила Рембрандту двоих детей. Мальчик умер в младенчестве, а дочь Корнелия пережила обоих родителей.

На автопортрете в технике офорта в 1648 г. Рембрандт изобразил человека, познавшего горе, но не тоскующего и одержимого желанием жить и работать. Его личная жизнь была наполнена присутствием Хендрикье и Титуса. Сына Рембрандт бесконечно любил и восхищался им.

В XVII в. голландцы испытывали сильное пристрастие к пейзажам. Сохранилось множество незатейливых картин, полных очарования. Сам жанр пейзажа в Голландии подразделялся на несколько более узких жанров.

Одни художники создавали только виды дюн и каналов, другие работали над городскими панорамами, третьи совершенствовались в написании морских или лесных пейзажей, изображая природу во все времена года.

Рембрандта, интересовался этим жанром более 20 лет. Пейзажи составляют не более десятой части созданных им картин, но и в них видна та же сила таланта, что и в картинах мастера, выполненных в других жанрах. Некоторые из выбранных художником ландшафтов превратились под его кистью в романтичные и даже фантастические пейзажи, но в основном его работы в этом жанре достаточно реалистичны.

Рембрандт. Вечерний пейзаж



Комментарии (103)

  1. Великий конечно художник, да и картины его со временем наверно только расти в цене будут! Жалко, что я и сейчас ничего не могу позволить из его произведений

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  4. Картина была написана по заказу Стрелкового общества — отряда гражданского ополчения Нидерландов , пожелавшего украсить своё новое здание групповыми портретами шести рот. Рембрандту портрет заказала стрелковая рота капитана Франса Баннинга Кока и заплатила 1600 флоринов .

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