Район Лейдена. Часть 7

Работы Рембрандта тоже подвергались копированию учениками ван Эйленбурга. Копии своим существованием создали серьезную проблему для современных искусствоведов. Многие известные коллекционеры считают себя владельцами подлинных полотен мастера, хотя на самом деле обладают старинными копиями.

От портретиста XVII в. требовалось немного: сходство с моделью, соответствующее внимание к деталям одежды и украшениям и только слабая попытка отразить внутренний мир человека. Рембрандт превзошел в искусстве портрета всех амстердамских портретистов, даже таких мастеров, владевших отточенной техникой исполнения, как Томас де Крейзер и Николас Элиас.

Самые первые работы, выполненные Рембрандтом на заказ, – «Портрет ученого» и «Николас Руте» – были прекрасными образцами в общепринятых традициях. Оба портрета представляют собой поясные изображения мужчин, выполненные на светлом нейтральном фоне. Их лица и руки хорошо освещены. И ученый, и Николас Руте смотрят прямо на зрителя, словно стремятся к непосредственному общению. Весь их внешний вид дает понять, что на полотнах изображены добропорядочные граждане.

Их жизненность, рельефность характеров заметно отличают полотна от работ модных художников, а недостатки обоих портретов можно заметить, лишь сравнивая их с более поздними работами самого Рембрандта.

В 1632 г. Рембрандт написал большое полотно «Урок анатомии доктора Тульпа», принесшее художнику широчайшее общественное признание. Групповой портрет как таковой появился в Голландии уже давно и стал для культуры этой страны традиционным жанром. Своим появлением этот жанр обязан стремлению глав гильдий и различных обществ украшать залы своих собраний своими собственными изображениями.

Для группового портрета обычно должно было позировать не менее 6 человек, но иногда их число увеличивалось до 20 и более. Причем каждый из изображенных на портрете был обязан заплатить часть причитавшегося художнику вознаграждения. Подобные заказы были весьма выгодными, хотя у портретиста и могли возникнуть некоторые проблемы.

Каждый член группы, в соответствии с воцарившимися в голландском обществе демократическими традициями, предполагал, что его изображение должно находиться на не менее важном месте картины, чем остальные. В результате получалось, что на групповом портрете все персонажи стояли полукругом или монотонным рядом. Таким образом соблюдалось некое подобие равенства между ними.

Рембрандт расположил восемь персонажей, выбрав для этого пирамидальную композицию. Все пристально следят за происходящим событием: известный амстердамский врач Николас Тульп производит вскрытие трупа. Целостность композиции была достигнута Рембрандтом именно благодаря общей увлеченности всех изображенных. Добиться подобного эффекта не смог никто из предшественников великого художника.



Комментарии (85)

  1. Thank you for some other fantastic article.
    Where else may just anybody get that kind of
    information in such an ideal means of writing? I’ve a
    presentation next week, and I am at the search for such info.

  2. Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads up very fast!
    What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my web site loaded up as fast as yours
    lol

  3. Excellent way of explaining, and pleasant paragraph to obtain data concerning my presentation topic, which i
    am going to convey in institution of higher education.

  4. I know this web site presents quality based articles and other data,
    is there any other web site which presents these kinds of stuff in quality?

  5. Hello! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could find
    a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using
    the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  6. I love it whenever people come together and share views.
    Great website, continue the good work!

  7. I am really inspired with your writing talents and also with
    the layout in your blog. Is that this a paid subject or did
    you customize it your self? Either way stay
    up the nice quality writing, it’s uncommon to peer a nice weblog like this one today..

  8. This design is spectacular! You obviously know how to keep a reader entertained.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Great job.
    I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
    Too cool!

  9. This post is in fact a fastidious one it helps new internet viewers, who
    are wishing in favor of blogging.

  10. I believe that is among the most significant info for me.

    And i am glad studying your article. But should remark on few common things, The website taste is perfect,
    the articles is actually great : D. Excellent
    activity, cheers

  11. If you wish for to improve your familiarity just
    keep visiting this site and be updated with the newest news
    posted here.

  12. Hello, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility
    issues. When I look at your blog in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, wonderful blog!

  13. Your means of telling all in this piece of writing is really nice,
    all can effortlessly understand it, Thanks a lot.

  14. Touche. Outstanding arguments. Keep up the good effort.

  15. Magnificent web site. Lots of helpful info here.
    I am sending it to some buddies ans also sharing in delicious.
    And naturally, thanks in your effort!

  16. Do you have a spam problem on this website; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have
    developed some nice practices and we are looking to trade solutions with others,
    why not shoot me an email if interested.

  17. Spot on with this write-up, I seriously believe this amazing site needs much more attention. I’ll probably be returning to see more, thanks
    for the advice!

  18. Hi there Dear, are you really visiting this site daily, if so after that you
    will definitely get fastidious experience.

  19. What’s Happening i am new to this, I stumbled
    upon this I’ve found It positively useful and it has helped me out loads.

    I hope to give a contribution & aid other customers like its helped me.
    Good job.

  20. Aw, this was an extremely nice post. Finding the time and actual effort to make a really good article… but what
    can I say… I put things off a lot and never manage to get nearly anything done.

  21. continuously i used to read smaller content that also clear their motive, and that is also happening with this article which I
    am reading at this place.

  22. Great site you have got here.. It’s hard to find high-quality
    writing like yours these days. I seriously appreciate individuals
    like you! Take care!!

  23. hello there and thank you for your information – I’ve certainly picked up something
    new from right here. I did however expertise a few technical points
    using this site, since I experienced to reload the
    site lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly.
    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I
    am complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads
    and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my email and could look out for
    much more of your respective exciting content.

    Make sure you update this again very soon.

  24. Fantastic goods from you, man. I’ve keep in mind your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely wonderful.
    I really like what you have got here, certainly like what you’re
    saying and the way during which you assert it. You’re making it
    enjoyable and you still care for to stay it smart.
    I can not wait to read far more from you. This is really a terrific website.

  25. Hello Dear, are you actually visiting this web page on a regular basis, if so afterward you will definitely obtain pleasant experience.

  26. When someone writes an paragraph he/she maintains
    the plan of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it.
    Therefore that’s why this article is outstdanding.
    Thanks!

  27. Hi friends, how is everything, and what you would like
    to say about this post, in my view its genuinely awesome
    designed for me.

  28. I simply couldn’t depart your site before suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the usual information an individual provide to your guests?
    Is gonna be again ceaselessly to check up on new posts

  29. Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one!
    It’s on a totally different topic but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Outstanding choice of colors!

  30. I enjoy looking through a post that can make people think.
    Also, thank you for allowing for me to comment!

  31. This page certainly has all of the information and facts
    I wanted concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask.

  32. Link exchange is nothing else except it is simply placing the other
    person’s website link on your page at proper place and other
    person will also do same for you.

  33. It’s an amazing paragraph in support of all the online viewers; they
    will take benefit from it I am sure.

  34. At this time I am ready to do my breakfast, afterward having my breakfast
    coming again to read further news.

  35. Actually no matter if someone doesn’t be aware of
    afterward its up to other people that they will help, so
    here it takes place.

  36. No matter if some one searches for his essential thing, so he/she desires to be available
    that in detail, thus that thing is maintained over here.

  37. A fascinating discussion is definitely worth comment.
    I think that you ought to publish more on this subject, it may not be a taboo subject
    but typically folks don’t discuss such topics.
    To the next! Cheers!!

  38. Right away I am going to do my breakfast, afterward having my breakfast coming yet again to read more news.

  39. Since the admin of this web site is working, no doubt very quickly
    it will be well-known, due to its quality contents.

  40. What i don’t realize is in reality how you are now not really much more
    smartly-preferred than you may be now. You’re very intelligent.
    You know therefore considerably on the subject of this matter, produced
    me in my opinion imagine it from so many varied angles.
    Its like men and women aren’t fascinated unless it’s one thing to accomplish with Woman gaga!
    Your personal stuffs great. All the time handle it up!

  41. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your site
    is excellent, let alone the content!

  42. We absolutely love your blog and find most of your post’s to be exactly
    what I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content
    for you? I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on a few of the
    subjects you write in relation to here. Again, awesome blog!

  43. Hey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came to give it a look.

    I’m definitely enjoying the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers!
    Exceptional blog and great style and design.

  44. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide
    credit and sources back to your webpage? My blog is in the
    very same niche as yours and my visitors would genuinely
    benefit from a lot of the information you
    provide here. Please let me know if this alright with you.

    Thank you!

  45. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I have truly
    enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  46. hi!,I love your writing so much! share we keep in touch extra
    about your post on AOL? I require a specialist on this house to resolve my problem.

    Maybe that’s you! Looking ahead to look you.

  47. Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board
    and I in finding It really useful & it helped me out a lot.
    I’m hoping to offer one thing again and aid others such as you helped me.

  48. I am genuinely delighted to glance at this website posts which
    includes plenty of valuable data, thanks for providing such data.

  49. I’ve learn a few good stuff here. Certainly price bookmarking
    for revisiting. I surprise how a lot effort you put to
    make the sort of great informative site.

  50. Good response in return of this issue with real arguments and describing everything about that.

  51. I believe this is among the such a lot vital information for me.
    And i am happy studying your article. However should statement on few common issues, The site style is ideal, the articles is actually excellent : D.
    Just right job, cheers

  52. Do you have a spam problem on this website; I also am a
    blogger, and I was curious about your situation; many
    of us have developed some nice procedures and we
    are looking to trade strategies with other folks, please
    shoot me an email if interested.

  53. I constantly spent my half an hour to read this blog’s articles
    everyday along with a cup of coffee.

  54. Hi there this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG
    editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I
    wanted to get advice from someone with experience.
    Any help would be enormously appreciated!

  55. I visit each day a few websites and sites to read articles or reviews,
    except this blog offers feature based writing.

  56. Thanks a lot for sharing this with all of us you actually know what you’re speaking approximately!

    Bookmarked. Kindly also discuss with my web site =). We
    may have a link trade arrangement between us

  57. Simply want to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity on your put up is just great and
    i can suppose you are an expert on this subject. Well along with your permission allow
    me to grasp your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thanks 1,000,000 and please carry on the enjoyable
    work.

  58. Very nice article, just what I wanted to find.

  59. Hi, I do think this is a great web site. I stumbledupon it 😉 I will come back once again since I book marked
    it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue
    to help others.

  60. Hi there, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam feedback?
    If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can suggest?
    I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any
    support is very much appreciated.

  61. I used to be recommended this blog by way of my cousin. I am
    now not positive whether or not this submit is written by means of him as no
    one else know such precise approximately my problem.

    You’re incredible! Thanks!

  62. When someone writes an post he/she keeps the thought
    of a user in his/her brain that how a user can know it.
    So that’s why this piece of writing is outstdanding.
    Thanks!

  63. I have been browsing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found
    any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me.
    In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will
    be a lot more useful than ever before.

  64. It’s truly a great and useful piece of info. I’m happy that you shared this useful information with us.

    Please stay us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

  65. Yesterday, while I was at work, my cousin stole my
    iPad and tested to see if it can survive a
    forty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is
    now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is totally off topic but I
    had to share it with someone!

  66. Your style is so unique compared to other people I have
    read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll
    just bookmark this site.

  67. Valuable info. Fortunate me I found your site by chance, and
    I am surprised why this coincidence did not came about in advance!
    I bookmarked it.

  68. May I simply just say what a relief to uncover somebody
    who really understands what they are discussing online.
    You certainly know how to bring a problem to light and make it important.

    More and more people must check this out and understand this side of
    your story. I can’t believe you are not more popular given that you definitely have the gift.

  69. I was able to find good advice from your blog posts.

  70. Excellent article. Keep posting such kind of info on your blog.
    Im really impressed by your site.
    Hey there, You’ve done a fantastic job. I will certainly digg
    it and individually recommend to my friends. I’m sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  71. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you
    wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with some pics to drive the message
    home a little bit, but other than that, this is fantastic blog.
    An excellent read. I will certainly be back.

  72. Hey excellent blog! Does running a blog such as
    this require a great deal of work? I have absolutely no understanding of coding but I had
    been hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyways, if
    you have any recommendations or techniques for new blog owners please share.
    I understand this is off topic however I just needed
    to ask. Thank you!

  73. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about
    this, like you wrote the book in it or something.
    I think that you could do with some pics to drive the message home a
    bit, but other than that, this is great blog.
    A great read. I’ll definitely be back.

  74. What a data of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious familiarity concerning unpredicted feelings.

  75. If you want to grow your familiarity just keep visiting this web site and be updated with the most
    up-to-date gossip posted here.

  76. We are a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.
    Your site offered us with valuable info to work on. You’ve done a formidable job and our entire community will be thankful to you.

  77. Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog! We are
    a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
    Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!

  78. It’s an amazing article for all the online people; they will
    get benefit from it I am sure.

  79. I believe everything typed was very logical. But, what about
    this? suppose you added a little information?
    I mean, I don’t wish to tell you how to run your blog,
    but suppose you added a headline that grabbed a person’s attention? I mean Район Лейдена.
    Часть 7 is a little plain. You might peek at Yahoo’s
    front page and note how they create article titles to grab viewers interested.
    You might try adding a video or a related picture or two to grab readers
    excited about what you’ve written. In my opinion, it would bring your posts a little livelier.

  80. Wow, fantastic weblog layout! How long have you ever been running a blog for?
    you made running a blog look easy. The overall look of your website is
    fantastic, as smartly as the content!

  81. Howdy would you mind letting me know which web host you’re using?

    I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different web browsers and I must say
    this blog loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good hosting provider at a fair price?

    Cheers, I appreciate it!

  82. I want to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I definitely loved every little bit
    of it. I have got you bookmarked to look at new things you post…

  83. Thanks in support of sharing such a fastidious opinion, article is pleasant, thats why i have
    read it fully

  84. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something that I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complex and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post,
    I’ll try to get the hang of it!

Добавить комментарий

*