Голландская живопись XIX–XX вв. в музеях Амстердама

В залах амстердамских музеев хранятся богатейшие коллекции художественных произведений голландских мастеров XIX–XX вв.

Их голоса почти не слышны в грохоте революций и войн, их сдержанное и отчасти провинциальное искусство не привлекает искусствоведов европейских стран и заокеанского Запада.

В Голландии живописцы продолжают писать городские и сельские пейзажи, уютные интерьеры. Они не могут и не хотят отказываться от своего особого национального реализма.

Интересно, что благодаря этой особенности одаренным голландским мастерам раньше, чем художникам других стран, удалось научиться передавать в своих полотнах зарождавшееся мировосприятие нового времени.

Талантливый живописец Ваутер Йоаннес ван Троствейк (1782–1810), умерший 28 летним, создал картину «Ворота Рампортье в Амстердаме». В четкой, геометрически правильно построенной композиции удивительным образом соединяются наследие старых голландских мастеров и новые веяния классицизма.

Особый зрительный эффект создает соотношение на картине серого и белого цветов: унылых домов, зимнего неба и только что выпавшего снега. В городском пейзаже хорошо чувствуется настроение молодого художника, рожденное скромной красотой амстердамского утра. Работы этого замечательного мастера представляют собой весьма значительный вклад в сокровищницу голландской живописи.

В конце XIX в. голландское изобразительное искусство переживало некоторое оживление. Широкую известность приобрели романтические работы Ари Шеффера (1795–1858), впоследствии переехавшего в Париж.

Крупнейшим представителем голландского импрессионизма называют Жоржа Хендрика Брейтнера (1857–1923). В одной из своих работ художник обращается к теме, привлекавшей многих художников, – городскому зимнему пейзажу. Полотно «Дворцовая улица в Амстердаме» можно сравнить с пейзажем Троствейка. Их разделяет несколько десятилетий.

В работе Брейтнера тот же лаконичный и строгий отбор художественных средств и полная сосредоточенность на изображении. Только в основе картины Троствейка лежит восприятие увиденного самим художником, а у Брейтнера заснеженная городская улица изображена с точки зрения одного из прохожих.

Брейтнер был представителем так называемой гаагской школы, к которой, кроме него, искусствоведы относят таких мастеров как братья Марисы, отец и сын Израэльсы, Месдага, А. Мауве и других. Все они, сохраняя национальное своеобразие своего творчества и придерживаясь принципов и приемов европейского искусства того времени, достигают известности и обретают славу.

Странно, что современники не заметили более яркого и необычного явления в голландском искусстве – творчества крупнейшего мастера своей эпохи Винсента Ван Гога.



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