Честный человек и великий художник. Часть 3

Зритель видит резко очерченные скулы, толстогубый рот, впалые щеки, черные глаза, в которых читаются скорбь и тревога. В то же время в лице женщины есть сила, горечь и особая мягкость, свидетельствующие о ее безрадостной жизни, которая проходит в ежедневной борьбе за хлеб насущный.

В 1886 г. Ван Гог переехал в Париж. В работах парижского цикла исчезли мрачное настроение и темные краски. Его работы значительно посветлели. Изменилась и их тематика. В этот период художником написано множество натюрмортов с фруктами и цветами. Ван Гог продолжал учиться и совершенствоваться.

Он вырабатывал свой собственный стиль, учитывая при этом все достижения современной мировой живописи, чтобы как можно полнее научиться выражать в картинах свои идеи, сложившиеся задолго до этого времени.

В натюрморте, известном под названием «Яблоки на плетеном блюде», твердая форма яблок построена энергичными мазками. Такие же мазки покрывают потолок и поверхность стола. Ван Гог настолько владеет кистью, что легко может выразить и неудержимое беспокойство, и радостное волнение.

Если сравнивать ранние произведения Ван Гога с работами французского периода, можно отметить, что на полотнах, рожденных во Франции, художник стремится уравновесить яркие пятна используемых им чистых красок. Люди на его портретах изображены то на желтом, то на зеленом фоне, покрытым иногда декоративным узором.

Осенью 1888 г. Ван Гог написал известную картину «Терраса кафе ночью». Основой цветового решения работы стал контраст между кафе, залитым золотистым светом, и синевой ночи. В этом контрасте художником заложено эмоциональное противопоставление шумного мирка кафе и величия ночного неба, усыпанного звездами. На первый взгляд картина кажется вполне мирной, но всмотревшись повнимательнее, зритель начинает ощущать неясную тревогу.

Вернувшись из Парижа, Ван Гог поселился в Арле, где жил и работал 14 месяцев. За это время художник написал более 200 полотен. Ему удалось стереть границы между жанрами и научиться выражать свое мироощущение не только в пейзажах и натюрмортах, но и в портретах.

Ван Гог усилил цветовые сочетания, упростил рисунок и обобщил формы, он тщательно обдумывал и подбирал каждый мотив. В результате мир на его полотнах стал огромным. Раздвинув границы зрения, Ван Гог сумел вместить в картину «Долина Кро» гораздо больше того, что доступно человеческому глазу.

Преувеличение пространства стало для Ван Гога средством для создания синтезированного образа природы. Весь пейзаж наполнен тишиной и покоем. Человек чувствует уверенность и желание работать. Труд людей и его смысл обрели иную окраску, отличную от той, что присутствовала на картинах, созданных в Голландии. Фигуры крестьян на полотнах арльского периода выглядят почти символическими.



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