Консертхебау. Часть 2

В Голландии принято считать, что творчество Малевича оказало сильное влияние на молодых голландских художников – таких, как Ян Схоонховен и Пит Мондриан, – чьи работы также нашли свое место в залах музея Стеделийк.

Непосредственно к Музеумплейн примыкает Музей бриллиантов. Отсюда же прекрасно видны здания Ост Индской компании. Кроме всех этих заведений, здесь возвышается старейшая церковь города – Oude Kerk (1306), где регулярно проводятся концерты органной музыки, на которые собирается степенная публика.

В 1631 г. французский философ и математик Рене Декарт писал другу из Амстердама: «В этом большом городе… я брожу среди шума и суеты великого народа, наслаждаясь той же свободой и покоем, как ты среди своих аллей, и обращаю столько же внимания на окружающих, сколько ты на деревья в лесу и на зверей, которые там пасутся… Где еще в мире все удобства жизни и все мыслимые диковины могут быть достижимы так легко, как здесь? В какой еще стране можно найти такую полную свободу?..».

Миллионы туристов неудержимо привлекает этот город хотя бы потому, что он предельно толерантен и многолик. Каждый его уголок таит новые открытия.

Недалеко от центра города расположена Вестеркерк (Westerkerk) – самая большая в Нидерландах церковь в стиле ренессанс. В 1484 г. император Максимилиан I специальным указом пожаловал Амстердаму право включить в герб города изображение своей короны. Теперь эта корона венчает изумительно стройную колокольню церкви. Здесь похоронен великий живописец Рембрандт.

Вестеркерк

Внутреннее убранство церкви Вестеркерк

На соседней улице всегда небольшая очередь в музей Анны Франк, маленькой еврейской девочки, которая написала свой знаменитый дневник, отчаянный протест против войны, нетерпимости, зла, бессмысленного уничтожения. Дом, где проживала семья Отто Франка, был построен в 1635 г., и в нем всегда жили торговцы. Когда Гитлер пришел к власти, семье Франка пришлось переехать из Германии в Голландию, где он в 1933 г. купил этот дом.

У Франков была также квартира на другой улице, где они жили, а в доме на Принсенграхт размещался склад пряностей и лекарственных трав. Специфика хранения трав состоит в том, что они должны обязательно храниться в темном помещении, поэтому все окна на фасаде здания были затемнены. Когда фашисты оккупировали Нидерланды, Отто Франк решил укрыть семью в этом пакгаузе.

Старшей дочери Франков пришла повестка на работу, что и ускорило события. Им удалось инсценировать отъезд в деревню и втайне от соседей спрятаться в заднем флигеле дома склада. Вместе с ними там укрылась и семья компаньона Франка – ван Даана. Продукты узникам приносили бывшие сотрудницы фирмы. Более двух лет восемь человек ждали освобождения страны от фашистов. Их ожидание было наполнено страхом и тревогой. Нервы у всех были на пределе.



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