Водная стихия и голландские польдеры. Часть 3

Возведение дамбы началось весьма буднично: на баржах с открывающимся дном подвозили щебень, из которого на мелководном участке насыпали 2 параллельные дамбы, а между ними распределяли песок по трубам. В самых глубоководных местах были установлены бетонные контейнеры, заполненные камнями. Это сдерживало мощь ударов морских волн и позволяло вести строительные работы.

Во время закрытия последних проемов дамбы разыгралась настоящая драма. Поток морской воды был такой силы, что, углубив дно ложбины до 28 м, он стал размывать привезенные строительные материалы. Вдобавок ко всему, метеорологи предсказали штормовой ветер. Едва дождавшись отлива, строители приступили к фронтальной засыпке грунта. Благодаря поистине героическим усилиям людей брешь была закрыта.

Самая трудная операция завершила строительство дамбы, перекрывшей залив Зёйдерзе. Последние камни были сброшены в воду 28 мая 1932 г. С этого момента залива Зёйдерзе больше не существует. На карте появился новый залив Эйсселмер.

Зёйдерзе превратился в огромный резервуар с пресной водой. С помощью шлюзов в новой дамбе появилась возможность регулирования уровня воды во всем прибрежном поясе бывшего Зёйдерзе. Ширина заградительной дамбы 90 м, а над поверхностью моря она возвышается на 7,5 м.

На гребне дамбы проложены автострада и дорога для пешеходов и велосипедистов, а также осталось место для железнодорожного полотна. В самом центре дамбы вскоре появилась смотровая башня, где открыли ресторан и автостоянку. В этом месте над автострадой переброшен небольшой мостик.

Дамба отодвинула морской берег на 85 км и практически устранила опасность наводнений со стороны Северного моря. Результатом строительства дамбы стало создание гигантского польдера Вирингер Мер.

Для этого было осушено 20 тыс. га бывшего морского дна. На польдере были проведены вода и электричество, телефон и канализация. Там обосновались врачи, учителя, торговцы, сельскохозяйственные рабочие, для которых были заложены 4 селения. На Вирингер Мер появилось 520 фермерских хозяйств, а всего проживает более 8 тыс. человек.

Процесс освоения территории бывшего морского дна включает несколько этапов. Вначале с помощью насосов откачивают воду. Затем обнажившуюся землю засеивают тростником с вертолетов или самолетов. Тростник отлично укрепляет грунт и, кроме того, растение используется в промышленности в качестве ценной биомассы. После осушения земля очень быстро покрывается ковром сорняков, поэтому необходимо незамедлительно произвести посев люцерны или пшеницы, чтобы исключить возможность дефляции (сдувание верхнего слоя почвы под воздействием сильных ветров). Одновременно с этим в почве прокладывается система дренажных труб.

В 1945 г. жители польдера перенесли страшное испытание: гитлеровские войска незадолго до окончания Второй мировой войны в двух местах взорвали заградительную дамбу, и Вирингер Мер накрыло пятиметровым слоем воды.

Вода наступала в течение 40 часов, поэтому людям удалось спастись, но затопленными оказались все фермы и жилые здания. Лишь спустя 4 месяца упорной борьбы с морской стихией голландцам удалось справиться с бедой и снова вдохнуть жизнь в Вирингер Мер.



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