Три экспедиции Виллема Баренца

Виллем Барентсзон (сын Барента) родился около 1550 г. Он был коренным амстердамцем и, судя по тому, что фамилии у него не было, – простого происхождения. Он прославился под обычным для голландцев отчеством – Баренц. Это все, что известно об этом человеке до начала его знаменитых экспедиций.

В свое первое морское путешествие Баренц отправился в начале лета 1594 г. на трех кораблях и яхте. Одним кораблем командовал он сам, другим – Корнелис Корнелизон Най, третьим – Брант Исбрантзон Тетгалес. Торговым комиссаром на третьем корабле был тот самый Ян Хейген Линсхотен.

Часть карты Баренца

Корабли направились на север и вскоре разделились. Най и Тетгалес достигли западного берега полуострова Ямал. Они приняли морской залив за устье реки Обь и решили, что находятся недалеко от мыса Табин. Им показалось, что пройдено уже достаточно (хотя это было немногим больше 300 км) и пора возвращаться назад.

Корабль Баренца в это время плыл вдоль берега Новой Земли. Он открыл остров Адмиралтейства и пролив, отделяющий его от Новой Земли. С 13 июля путешествию стали мешать громадные массы льда, и продвижение корабля на север замедлилось. Две недели корабль с трудом лавировал среди льдов.

Баренц открыл северный мыс Новой Земли и назвал его Ледяным (мыс Карлсена). А возле мыса мореплаватели обнаружили несколько маленьких островов, которые получили название Оранских. В сентябре все три корабля вернулись на родину.

Вторая экспедиция Баренца началась в августе 1595 г. и состояла из шести кораблей и быстроходного вестового судна. Корабли были нагружены всевозможными товарами. Командовал флотилией Най, а Баренц был главным штурманом экспедиции. Торговым комиссаром снова стал Линсхотен.

Пройти через ледяные поля в Карское море экспедиции удалось лишь в начале сентября. Между Наем и Баренцем начались столкновения. Причиной послужила постоянная нерешительность Ная и Тетгалеса, останавливавшихся перед каждым препятствием.

Однажды, во время высадки команды на небольшой островок, двух матросов растерзал белый медведь, Най на офицерском совете предложил повернуть домой. Протокол подписали все, кроме Баренца. Корабли вернулись в Амстердам. Так бесславно закончилась вторая экспедиция.

Третье плавание Виллема Баренца

Вскоре правительство Нидерландов назначило высокую премию тому, кто откроет Северо Восточный проход. Амстердамский сенат выделил средства для снаряжения двух кораблей, командирами которых были назначены Яков Гемскерк и Ян Рейп. Баренца хотели обойти, но Гемскерк предложил ему пойти штурманом на его корабле. Баренц согласился.

Третья экспедиция вышла в путь весной 1596 г. Вопреки мнению Баренца Рейп принял решение пойти на север, чтобы выйти в «Полярное море», которое, как он думал, совершенно свободно ото льдов.

Неожиданно путешественникам открылся остров, возле которого удачным выстрелом один из моряков убил медведя. Остров голландцы назвали Медвежьим и, пробыв там четыре дня, двинулись дальше, к Груманту (Шпицберген).

Взяв курс на северо запад, мореплаватели вскоре увидели землю, которую вначале приняли за Гренландию, а на самом деле это был западный берег Шпицбергена. Рейп записал в корабельном журнале: «Мы дали этой земле название Spitzbergen, потому что там много заостренных вершин. Хотя эта страна расположена под 80° широты и еще севернее, она изобилует зеленью и травой и вскармливает травоядных животных…».

Из за непроходимых льдов корабли повернули на юг и снова подошли к Медвежьему острову. Рейп предложил искать проход к северу от Шпицбергена, а затем повернуть на восток. Баренц настаивал на том, что надо идти сразу на восток от Шпицбергена.

Корабли разделились, так как Баренца поддержал капитан Гемскерк. Их корабль пошел сразу на восток и 17 июля 1596 г. подошел к Новой Земле, а потом резко повернул на север. Но, остановившись на северо восточной оконечности Новой Земли, мореплаватели решили остаться здесь на зимовку. Это была самая первая зимовка западноевропейцев в Арктике.

Корабль Баренца во льдах. С гравюры конца XVI в.



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