Пакгаузы и вонботы. Часть 2

В начале XVII в. об этих строгостях словно забыли. В Амстердаме повсюду начали надстраивать старинные башни и церковные колокольни. На башнях появились остроконечные узорные шпили, а на колокольнях выросли дополнительные ярусы.

Если бы можно было посмотреть на Амстердам того времени с высоты птичьего полета, то зрителю показалось бы, что он видит множество морских судов после сильного шторма. Старые фундаменты не были рассчитаны на увеличивавшийся вес сооружений, сваи не выдерживали и ломались, башни давали крен под разными углами. Сторожевую башню Монтелбансторен в 1606 г. надстроил архитектор Хендрик де Кейсер. Башня получила прозрачный купол, увенчанный изящным шпилем, что сильно утяжелило все сооружение. Спустя 4 года после создания нового купола башня так сильно наклонилась, что чуть не обвалилась в канал Ауде Сханс. Хендрику де Кейсеру, автору надстройки, пришлось приложить немало усилий, чтобы выровнять эту башню.

Монтелбансторен

Амстердамцы прозвали эту башню Глупым Якобом по той простой причине, что часы на ней всегда шли неверно. Название Монтелбансторен башне досталось от испанцев, которые хотели построить на этом месте замок Монте Альбано, но так и не построили.

Раньше при строительстве домов использовались еловые сваи. Они были длиной около 11 м. Сваи, находясь под водой, сохраняют прочность на протяжении столетий. Если же извлечь их из влажного грунта, они очень быстро гниют. Позже строители стали применять бетонные сваи. Всему миру известны удивительные особняки, стоящие вдоль каналов сплошной стеной. Фасады домов, построенных до XVII в., были очень узкими, потому что тогда с домовладельцев взимался налог за ширину фасада.

Участки, отведенные под строительство, были шириной от 5,5 до 8,5 м. В Амстердаме живет легенда о бедном дворецком, служившем в одном из фешенебельных столичных особняков. Он так долго мечтал о собственном доме и так часто говорил об этом хозяину, что богач пообещал выстроить для дворецкого дом шириной в лестничный пролет. Вскоре эта шутка стала реальностью. Так появился один из 3 самых узких в Амстердаме домов. Ширина его фасада равна 2 м.

Другой узкий дом шириной в парадную дверь был построен братьями богачами Лодовайком и Хендриком Триппами для своего кучера и впоследствии получил название «Маленький Триппенхаус».

Позднее стали строить особняки с более широкими фасадами, так как каждому жителю города разрешили выделять уже по 2, а то и по 3 участка.

Дом шириной в лестничный пролет

Амстердамские дома славятся разнообразием архитектуры фасадов. Во времена Средневековья фасады были деревянными, их ласково называли «носики». Как уже говорилось, после пожаров 1421 и 1452 гг. амстердамцы стали строить дома из кирпича. Особняки начала XVII в. отличаются ступенчатыми фронтонами. Затем появились фронтоны «колокол», «карниз» и «грифон». На фасадах старинных домов можно увидеть плиты, служившие в XVI–XVII вв. индивидуальным адресом каждого особняка, только у домов тогда были не номера, а имена.

Кроме того, в специальных нишах на фасадах имелись аллегорические фигурки (gevelstenen), изображавшие столяра, лесоруба, рыболова или ткача. Они помогали определить род занятий хозяина дома.

Аллегорическая фигурка стеклодува

Ремесло живущих в домах амстердамцев рекламировали также красочные росписи на фасадах домов. Так, символом кондитеров был св. Николай, а возле каждой цирюльни были выставлены шесты с разноцветными полосками. Красная полоска означала, что лекарь умеет делать кровопускание, белая – может вырвать зуб, вправить вывих и сложить сломанные кости, а синяя означала, что цирюльник всегда готов побрить клиента.



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