Нидерландские общины и монархия

Чтобы проследить, как на протяжении столетий изменялся политический строй в Нидерландах, необходимо сделать небольшой экскурс в историю.

На территории современной Голландии до начала нашей эры жили германоязычные племена: фризы, трибанты, батавы. В I в. н. э. на эти земли пришли римляне. Они основали здесь такие города, как Неймеген, Утрехт, Маастрихт.

После крушения Римской империи побережье Северного моря стали заселять новые германские племена. Результатом этого стало появление 3 новых народов. Это были саксы, поселившиеся на востоке, фризы, жившие на побережье, и франки, обосновавшиеся на юге. Франкам даже удалось создать на западе Европы свою империю, часть которой впоследствии оказалась под властью Франции.

В X в. в Нидерландах стали активно развиваться сельское хозяйство и торговля. Возводились города и строились монастыри. Крестовые походы в Европе способствовали интенсивному развитию торговли. Города обретали независимость и постоянно пребывали в состоянии междоусобной войны друг с другом. К 1433 г. большая часть герцогств и графств объединилась под началом герцога Бургундского. Под власть Габсбургов Нидерланды попали в XVI в. В рамках империи 17 провинций получили от Карла V автономию, закрепленную подписанной им в 1548 г. Прагматической санкцией. Его сын Филипп II был потрясен успехом Реформации. Он мечтал создать централизованное правительство и начал притеснять протестантов.

Все это привело к народным волнениям, вылившимся в Восьмидесятилетнюю войну за независимость. Семь восставших провинций в 1579 г. создали государство Соединенные Провинции Нидерландов. Независимость республики была признана Испанией лишь в 1648 г., когда был заключен знаменитый Вестфальский мир.

Формально государственный строй в Нидерландах был республиканским и страной правил штатгальтер, но его пост передавался по наследству. По сути, на протяжении долгих лет у власти были представители знатного дворянского рода Оранских, являвшегося одной из ветвей германского рода Нассау, владетелей графства Оранж во Франции.

В 1650 г. умер Вильгельм II, не оставив после себя преемника. Результатом этого стало упразднение должности штатгальтера на долгие 22 года. После завершения затянувшихся англо голландских войн королем Англии стал Вильгельм III Оранский.



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