Нидерландские общины и монархия. Часть 3

Опыт управления общинным советом был перенесен и в города. Таким образом, вместо сильной самодержавной королевской власти страна получила систему общинных советов.

Формально главой государства является король (королева). При нем существует Государственный совет из 15 человек. Членом этого совета в обязательном порядке является преемник трона, а остальные кандидатуры утверждает король.

Он также подписывает все законы и указы, которые принимает Государственный совет и утверждают Генеральные штаты (парламент), но не несет за них никакой ответственности. За все, что делается в стране, отвечают министры.

Генеральные штаты состоят из двух палат. Первая палата объединяет 75 депутатов, которых избирают в провинциях на 4 года. Интересно, что каждые 3 года в Первую палату избирают 37 новых депутатов, тем самым обновляя ее наполовину. Во Вторую палату депутатов тоже избирает народ, и тоже на четырехлетний срок, только депутатов там в 2 раза больше, чем в Первой.

После выборов король назначает депутата, ответственного за формирование правительства. В правительство входят министр образования и наук, министр благосостояния, здравоохранения и культуры и другие, всего 14 министров.

Правительство должно поддерживаться большинством в парламенте. Для этого новоиспеченные министры разрабатывают программу своей работы и знакомят с ней короля и парламент.

В Нидерландах 12 провинций с населением в 15 млн. человек. Каждую провинцию возглавляют губернатор и провинциальные штаты. Кандидатуры губернаторов предлагает правительство, а утверждает король. Заседания провинциальных штатов принято проводить публично.

Провинции Нидерландов разделены на общины. Во главе каждой общины стоит бургомистр, которого назначает губернатор. Бургомистр управляет общиной вместе с советом, который избирается населением на 4 года.

У общин широкие полномочия и большие права. Они могут иметь свои предприятия, школы и даже университеты. Общины открывают свои клубы, театры, музеи, библиотеки, больницы. Они заботятся об охране окружающей среды и разрабатывают планы застройки территорий. Половина средств в бюджет каждой общины поступает из государственной казны, а вторую составляют налоги и прибыль с доходов коммунальных предприятий. Самая большая община страны – Амстердам. Кроме того что город является исторической столицей Нидерландов, это еще культурный и финансовый центр Рандстада и всей страны.



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