Архитектура Амстердама до XVII в

Нидерландское зодчество Раннего Возрождения развивалось в готических формах. Это было обусловлено двумя факторами: отсутствием античных традиций и бургундским господством, способствовавшим проникновению в голландскую культуру религиозно рыцарских элементов.

В архитектуре Амстердама преобладало светское направление, типы построек практически не изменялись. Лишь в XVI в., когда Нидерланды вошли в огромную империю Габсбургов, были установлены тесные художественные связи со многими европейскими странами. Несмотря на это, направления позднеготической архитектуры главенствовали при возведении любых сооружений.

Шпиль Южной церкви (Зюдекерк), возведенной в 1603 г.

В Амстердам стали приглашать известных итальянских архитекторов для строительства дворцовых построек и особняков для знати. Но классический стиль стал широко применяться в архитектурной практике только к середине XVI в. Готические традиции еще долго сохранялись в церковном строительстве. Облик Амстердама в XV–XVI вв. еще практически не отличался от средневековых городов. По прежнему большинство городских построек группировалось внутри городских стен, а в силуэте города главную роль играли башни соборов и ратуш.

Старинные особняки на берегу Амстели

Главной площадью города оставалась Торговая площадь, где, как правило, размещалась ратуша, конторы различных торговых гильдий и цеховые дома. В основной застройке городских улиц преобладали узкие дома с треугольными фронтонами, продолжала разрастаться сеть городских каналов.

Особняк XVII в. на берегу Амстели

Трудно говорить о сложившихся архитектурных ансамблях Амстердама, так как архитектурные формы различных сооружений порой не соответствовали друг другу. Но все же пространственный размах площадей, декоративная отделка каждого здания придавали им немалую привлекательность.

В церковном строительстве голландская архитектура до XVII в. не оставила крупных памятников. Особый тип общественного здания в Амстердаме представляли дома, принадлежавшие гильдиям, и цеховые здания (Дом цеха рыбаков). Они служили бюргерам для собраний и празднеств. Обычно это были сооружения в 5 этажей с узкими фасадами и высокой кровлей.

Важно отметить и такие постройки, как торговые ряды, здания городских весов, дома склады, отличающиеся определенной скупостью и лаконизмом архитектурных форм.

Питер Янс Санредам. Старая ратуша в Амстердаме. 1657

К сожалению, образцов жилых домов, построенных до конца XVI в., осталось в Голландии очень мало, уцелели буквально единицы. Особенностью жилых домов уже тогда были большие окна с частыми переплетами.

К середине столетия классический стиль уже активно проявлялся в монументальном строительстве. Самым известным голландским зодчим того времени был Корнелис Флорис. Ему удалось на основе нового стиля развить образные идеи монументальных построек, возведенных в прошлые века.

Влияние Флориса распространилось на архитектуру всей страны, но народные волнения и война с Испанией надолго приостановили строительство крупных сооружений.



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