Амстердам в XVII–XIX вв. Часть 5

Во времена Золотого века в Голландии издавалось большое количество всевозможной печатной продукции. В Амстердаме купить можно было все, от приключенческих рассказов и дамских романов до детской азбуки.

Самыми популярными изданиями были иллюстрированные журналы с описанием городов, входивших в состав Объединенных Провинций Нидерландов (так называли тогда нынешнюю Голландию). На основании этого в стране возник новый литературный жанр «хвалебный рассказ о городе».

Голландцы с великим удовольствием читали подобные рассказы, где говорилось о богатстве и процветании страны, превратившейся буквально за 50 лет из глухой провинции в настоящую торговую империю. Голландские корабли плавали за товаром даже в Японию и Новую Зеландию.

Почти все сочинения были написаны цветистым слогом с употреблением самых возвышенных эпитетов. Но к чести их авторов необходимо отметить, что к хвалебным рассказам прилагалась информация для путешественников.

Мост Блаунбург

Это могло быть расписание движения лодок и паромов, указание часов работы бирж, а также ожидаемое время прибытия и отправки торговых судов. Кроме того, приложения содержали адреса церквей и молельных домов всех конфессий, подробный план города и карту окрестностей.

Все это очень напоминало современные путеводители. В Амстердаме XVII в. существовало около десятка специальных путеводителей по городу, регулярно переиздававшихся и переведенных на иностранные языки.

Интересно, что архитектурные прелести Северной Венеции занимали в путеводителях совсем не много места, хотя к этому времени уже были построены церкви Хендрика де Кейсера и городская ратуша – здания, по сей день считающиеся главными достопримечательностями Амстердама.

Авторы уделяли много внимания тому, что скрывали простые кирпичные фасады, и подробно описывали богатейшее убранство фешенебельных особняков, разнообразие товаров в столичных лавках, фантастические восточные диковинки и драгоценности, которые регулярно доставляли в Амстердам корабли Ост Индской компании.

В путеводителях времен Золотого века рассказывалось, как весело можно проводить время в питейных заведениях и кофейных клубах, о том, какие несметные богатства хранятся в амстердамских банках, о нравах, царивших на столичной бирже и в главном игорном доме Голландии. И, конечно, в путеводителях упоминалось о домах терпимости и их обитательницах, а в конце XVII в. был издан даже специальный путеводитель, который так и назывался «Проституция Амстердама».

Многие путешественники отмечали, что в Амстердаме постоянно присутствует ощущение какой то тайны, тревожащее душу. Прочитавшему старинный путеводитель становилось ясно, что в респектабельном и внешне деловитом Амстердаме скрыто такое безумное количество пороков, роскоши, свободы и страстей, что его вполне можно назвать Новым Вавилоном.



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