Амстердам в XVII–XIX вв. Часть 4

Сохранились документы, согласно которым одним только коммерсантом из Лейдена было ввезено в город более 4 тыс. детей и подростков. Ни его, ни других голландцев, занимавшихся «вербовкой», совесть не беспокоила. Считалось, что все это вполне законно, тем более что в 1646 г. в Нидерландах вышел указ о том, что дети не должны работать более 14 ч в сутки. Городские власти Амстердама из самых гуманных побуждений постановили запретить кондитерам чрезмерно украшать свои изделия, выставленные в витринах, «дабы не ввергать в огорчение бедных людей, при коем виде в их душах может вспыхнуть алчность».

Семнадцатое столетие в истории Голландии называют Золотым веком. К 1622 г. в Амстердаме жило уже 100 тыс. человек, а к середине столетия население увеличилось до 150 тыс. Голландский флот под началом адмиралов Тромпа и де Рейтера полностью контролировал морские торговые пути. Голландия, захватив богатые колонии, быстро превратилась в крупнейшую морскую державу.

Амстердам стал центром европейской торговли. В городе открылось 4 тыс. торговых домов и складов, работали десятки гранильных и ювелирных мастерских. Разбогатевшие горожане строили для своих семей фешенебельные дома.

Образцовым торговым и финансовым предприятием стал в те годы Амстердамский банк. Впервые на амстердамской бирже заключались крупные сделки на поставку луковиц тюльпанов. Надо отметить, что цветочная эпопея в 1637 г. завершилась крахом, первым громким банкротством за период новейшей истории.

Несмотря на все это, город продолжал процветать. Появилась необходимость расширить Амстердам в западном направлении. Гигантский шаг вперед совершила и культура Голландии, подарив миру плеяду талантливых ученых и художников.

Современные ученые подсчитали, что на протяжении столетия в маленькой Голландии каждые три дня из под кисти гениальных художников появлялся шедевр. Причем переписи подлежали лишь сохранившиеся картины. А сколько их было утрачено во время стихийных бедствий и войн!

Во второй половине XVII в. Голландия была втянута в войну с Англией. Принц Вильгельм II Оранский в 1650 г. совершил внезапное нападение на Амстердам, но попытка захватить город оказалась неудачной.

В результате войны с Англией в середине XVII в. торговля в Амстердаме ухудшилась до такой степени, что жители стали покидать город. В 1653 г. в Амстердаме насчитывалось около 4 тыс. брошенных домов. Но вскоре ситуация изменилась, горожане вернулись в свои жилища, а торговля достигла прежних масштабов.

Интересно читать записи голландских негоциантов XVII в., сохранившиеся в архивах. В частности, в одной из амбарных книг был обнаружен список грузов, привезенных в Амстердам на корабле Ост Индской компании 27 июня 1634 г.: «326 733 фунта малаккского перца; 297 446 фунтов гвоздики; 292 623 фунта cелитры; 141 278 фунтов индиго; 483 082 фунта саппанского дерева; 219 027 предметов голубой посуды эпохи Мин; 52 сундука корейского и японского фарфора; 75 больших ваз и горшков, полных консервированных сладостей, преимущественно острого имбиря; 660 фунтов японской меди; 241 предмет из японского лака; 3989 крупных алмазов грубой огранки; 93 шкатулки жемчуга и рубинов; 603 свертка персиянского шелка на платье; 199 800 фунтов цейлонского неочищенного сахара; 1 слон; 1 тигр».

Точная копия корабля Ост Индской компании



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