Амстердам в XVII–XIX вв. Часть 3

На голландских рынках появились огромные напольные вазы с китайским или японским рисунком, вазы для цветов делали в форме пагод, а блюда для фруктов имитировали дорогой фарфор Цзян си. В особняках богачей стало модным выставлять все изделия из фарфора в отдельной комнате. В домах амстердамцев со средним достатком «китайщина» украшала каминные полки и подоконники.

Охватившая страну мода на чай породила конкретный спрос на чайные сервизы. Выпускаемую в Делфте фаянсовую посуду стали разрисовывать восточными орнаментами, птицами, бабочками и цветами. Голландские мастера умудрились даже воспроизвести традиционные цвета японских фарфоровых изделий. Они расписывали синим по серому фону.

Вест Индской компании везло меньше, чем ее восточной сестре, но и ей удалось сколотить огромное состояние на сахаре и красном дереве, вывозимых в большом количестве с побережий Гвианы, Бразилии и Карибских островов. Из Нового Амстердама, столицы голландской колонии в Америке, прибывали ценные меха. Особенно ценились шкурки бобра и выдры. В 1667 г. голландцы вынуждены были обменять колонию Новые Нидерланды на Суринам, представляющий собой поросшие джунглями территории на южноамериканском побережье. Англичане сразу после обмена переименовали столицу бывшей голландской колонии в Нью Йорк.

Голландцы, как и представители большинства других стран, активно занимались работорговлей. С побережья Анголы за год они вывозили до 15 тыс. негров, покупая их на невольничьих рынках по 30 гульденов за голову. В Америке каждого раба продавали уже по 300–500 гульденов.

Интересно, что набожные голландские капитаны не усматривали в этом виде бизнеса ничего предосудительного и свято верили, что Господь оградит их от всех напастей. Если же среди живого «товара», закованного в тяжелые кандалы, вспыхивала эпидемия, капитан работоргового судна палил из мушкета в воздух, чтобы привлечь внимание Господа.

В самих же Соединенных Провинциях рабство было запрещено. Таким образом, если негру каким либо образом удавалось ступить на голландскую землю, он становился свободным.

Рембрандт ван Рейн. Два молодых негра. Ок. 1656

У Рембрандта ван Рейна есть зарисовки тушью и карандашом, сделанные с негритянских цирковых артистов и музыкантов. Художник напрямую не обвиняет унизительное отношение европейцев к неграм. В одном из рисунков отчетливо видно, что двое изображенных негров заслужили симпатию и уважение художника, и он считает их достойными людьми.

В то время как Голландия считалась богатейшей страной Европы, низшие слои общества продолжали бедствовать. Большинство бедняков жили в жалких лачужках, спали на охапках соломы.

Кроме того, в Голландии существовала в то время практика, мало чем отличавшаяся от работорговли: во Фландрии и Германии шла постоянная «вербовка», а проще сказать, кража детей для работы на голландских фабриках.



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